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深度分析FC魂斗罗的操作设计理念,为何能成为后续同类型标杆产品
2020-01-07 23:26  www.welcome2asia.com

  魂斗罗可以说是FC(红白机)上最具代表性的作品之一,在上世纪80年代末各种兼容FC机刚进入国内时,几乎是所有商场柜台的展示游戏,很多人正是从魂斗罗开始接触游戏,成为了国内最早的一批玩家

It is one of the most representative works of FC (Red and White Machine). In the late 1980s, when all kinds of compatible FC machines entered the country, it was the display game of almost all the shopping malls. Many people began to touch the game from the Soul Fight, becoming the earliest group of players in China

  30多年后的今天,各类动作射击游戏层出不穷,玩家玩的时候总会不自觉地和魂斗罗进行对比,其最早在FC主机上设计出的操作模式,可以说奠定了后续同类作品的基础,本篇文章就来深度分析一下,魂斗罗操作设计理念的基础,以及对整个游戏的关卡设计和玩家体验产生了哪些影响

Today, more than 30 years later, all kinds of action shooting games emerge in endlessly, players will play without consciously comparing with the soul, its earliest design on the FC host operation mode, can be said to lay the foundation of the following similar works, this article will come to a deep analysis of the design concept of the soul, and the impact on the overall game level design and player experience

  在动作射击游戏中,玩家操作内容可分为两大部分:移动和射击,其中两者的方向控制与动作结合是操作设计的基础,也是玩家需要上手学习的核心内容。在现代游戏中,比较常见的是使用双摇杆控制方式,各使用一个360度摇杆来控制方向,人物移动和射击方向互不冲突,无论是横版还是纵版卷轴,都能获得良好的操作体验,玩家上手简单,开发者设计关卡限制也很少

In the action shooting game, the player's operation content can be divided into two parts: moving and shooting, in which the combination of direction control and action of the two is the basis of the operation design and the core content that the player needs to learn from the hand. In modern games, it is more common to use a double rocker control mode, each using a 360-degree rocker to control the direction, the movement of characters and the direction of shooting do not conflict, whether horizontal or vertical scroll, can get a good operation experience, players are simple, developers design level restrictions are very few

  但是在FC主机上,只有一个控制方向的十字键,最多只能实现8方向操作,加上两个功能按键,显然不能同时实现移动和射击同时全方向操作,那么必然要对操作进行简化和取舍,在当时厂商主要采取了以下三种办法

However, in the FC host, there is only one control direction of the cross key, can only achieve a maximum of 8 direction operation, plus two function keys, obviously cannot achieve both moving and shooting at the same time all direction operation, then it is necessary to simplify and choose the operation. At that time, the manufacturer mainly adopted the following three methods

  第一种,保留了人物8方向移动,移动方向即为枪口朝向,也就是射击方向,很多纵版卷轴游戏均采用这种模式,典型代表是SNK的《古巴战士》。这种方式基本还原了当时街机流行的竖屏俯视角游戏,在表现弹幕上有着天然的优势,角色的武器也是种类繁多,上手简单且爽快,缺点是跳跃内容匮乏,游戏体验几乎是纯射击

The first, which retains the movement of the character 8 in the direction of the muzzle, or the direction of the shooting, is used in many vertical scroll games, typically in SNK's Cuban Warrior. This way basically restores the arcade popular vertical screen overlooking corner game, in the performance screen has a natural advantage, the character's weapons are also a variety of, simple and quick to use, the disadvantage is that jump content is scarce, the game experience is almost pure shooting

  第二种,保留人物移动和跳跃,简化射击方向,玩家只能照左右面向站立或跳跃射击,通常使用在横版卷轴游戏上,典型代表是CAPCOM的《洛克人》。这种方式淡化了射击内容,关卡内容加入了大量的跳跃元素,普遍难度较大,尤其是敌人位于跳跃高度够不到的死角位置时,会让玩家很头疼

Second, keep the characters moving and jumping, simplify the shooting direction, the player can only shine left and right to stand or jump shooting, usually used in the horizontal scroll game, the typical representative is CAPCOM's \"Locke Man \". This approach downplays the shooting, adding a lot of jumping elements to the level, which is generally more difficult, especially when the enemy is in a dead corner where the jump is not high enough

  第三种,通过合理设置人物状态和各种指令的优先度,实现人物移动、射击、跳跃无缝衔接,玩家可以获得跳跃动作和全向射击这两种体验,这种方式的典型代表就是魂斗罗,接下来我们就来详细分析

Third, by setting the state of the characters and the priority of various instructions, the players can achieve the seamless connection of character movement, shooting and jumping, and the players can get the two experiences of jumping movement and omnidirectional shooting. The typical example of this way is soul fighting.

  2。纵深视角,1代的2、4两关,玩家利用十字和跳跃键实现左右移动、卧倒、跳跃,但是射击方向只能向正前方纵深,利用移动人物位置来调整弹着点,这种方式实际上和前面所述的第二种类似,简化了射击瞄准操作

2。 The player uses the cross and jump keys to move left and right, lie down and jump, but the direction of the shot can only go straight ahead, using the position of the moving person to adjust the bullet point, which is actually similar to the second one described above, and simplifies the aiming operation

  3。横版卷轴,其它所有关卡,需要说明的是,类似1代第3瀑布关这种,虽然关卡设计是向上移动,但是视角和操作和横版关卡一致,仍然算作横版卷轴,这些关卡的操作是游戏的主要操作方式

3。 The horizontal scroll, all the other levels, need to be explained, similar to the 1st generation 3rd waterfall pass this kind, although the level design is upward movement, but the angle of view and the operation and the horizontal plate level are still counted as the horizontal plate scroll, these levels operation is the main operation mode of the game

  这里我们引入一个优先度的概念,如果从A状态转换到B状态有多种方法(比从B状态转换到A状态的方法多),或者B状态一旦触发后,必须等到B状态自然结束,或玩家主动取消B状态的关键操作才可以回到A状态,则认为B状态的优先度高于A状态

Here we introduce the concept of priority, if there are many ways to switch from state A to state B (more than from state B to state A), or once the state B has been triggered, it must wait until the state B is naturally over, or the player can actively cancel the key operation of state B to return to state A, then the priority of state B is higher than that of state A

  在游戏中,射击操作是凌驾于以上所有状态之上的,玩家可以随时按下射击键执行射击,射击方向以射击前一瞬间角色面向方向为准,小时候高手可以利用两波S散弹之间的极短暂时间差,快速切换方向,从而实现大扇形面积扫射,就是这个原理

In the game, the shooting operation is above all the above state, the player can press the firing key at any time to carry out the shooting, the shooting direction is based on the direction of the character in the first moment before the shooting, the master can use the very short time difference between the two waves of S scatterers, and quickly switch the direction, so that the large fan-shaped area to fire, is the principle.

  根据状态的优先度,我们还可以推断出各操作按键的优先度,FC版魂斗罗的按键包括:上下左右、射击、跳跃,我们判定按键优先度的原则是:优先度较低的按键处于按住状态时,如果按下优先度较高的按键,会转换成两个键同时生效的状态,例如当按住左右键水平奔跑时,按下跳跃键,就会变成斜跳

According to the priority of the state, we can also infer the priority of each operation key, the FC version of the key includes: up and down, shooting, jumping, we determine the principle of the priority of the key is that when the priority of the lower priority is held down, if the priority of the key is pressed, it will be converted into a state of two keys at the same time. For example, when the left and right keys are pressed to run, the jump key becomes an oblique jump

  首先,游戏中射击按键优先级最高,人物在任何状态下均可射击,所有武器类型均不限制子弹数量(限时无敌B和画面敌人全灭除外),这就奠定了游戏的主基调:射击为主、其它动作辅助,这个特点在BOSS战中体现的尤为明显,所有的BOSS战都是在一块完整的平地上进行,玩家只需要专注于移动躲避子弹,同时可以不间断地射击

First of all, the highest priority shooting key in the game, characters can be shot in any state, all types of weapons do not limit the number of bullets (time limit invincible B and screen enemy completely extinguished), which sets the main tone of the game: shooting, other action assistance, this feature is particularly evident in boss warfare, all boss warfare is carried out on a complete flat ground, players only need to focus on moving bullets to avoid, and at the same time can fire uninterrupted

  其次,游戏很好地解决了“移动射击”和“固定射击”之间的矛盾,FC游戏中移动和射击瞄准共用一个十字键,射击方向的变更必然伴随着人物方向变化,魂斗罗采用了方案是放弃了原地斜向射击功能,同时利用关卡的设计,让玩家可以在运动中斜向射击消灭敌人,部分BOSS战中需要长时间斜向射击的,都做了巧妙处理,例如加一个障碍物,变相实现了“固定射击”

Secondly, the game solves the contradiction between \"mobile shooting\" and \"fixed shooting\" very well, the FC game moves and the shooting aiming share a cross key, the change of shooting direction must be accompanied by the change of the character's direction, the scheme is to give up the in situ oblique shooting function, and the design of the level allows the player to destroy the enemy obliquely in the movement, and some boss battles require long oblique shooting, all of which are handled skillfully, such as adding an obstacle, realizing \"fixed shooting\" in disguise \"

  另外,玩家在游戏中任何状态下,输入任何按键,角色的动作都会发生变化,这样的设计让玩家的掌控感极强,以下面几个细节为例:

In addition, players in any state of the game, enter any button, the character's action will change, such a design gives the player a strong sense of control, take the following details as an example:

  1。在静止状态下按上键,人物会把枪口指向上方,表面上看这个动作和静止状态没有区别,但让玩家知道确实按了上键

1。 Press the button at rest, the character will point the muzzle to the top.

  这些操作细节,带来的体验就是,玩家不会有“失控感”,很多同类游戏中,玩家在执行跳跃、滑铲、闪退等动作时,人物实际上处于短暂的失控状态,不能取消或转为其它动作,玩家很难掌握这种失控状态何时结束,以做出下一个动作,造成的结果就是很多动作看起来很流畅,但是玩家真正操作起来并不流畅

The experience with these details is that players don't feel \"out of control \". In many similar games, the characters are actually in a brief state of control when they are jumping, shoveling, and retreating, and they can't cancel or switch to other movements. It's hard for players to know when the state of runaway will end to make the next move, resulting in a lot of action that seems to be smooth, but the player is not really fluent

  在后续的魂斗罗作品中,随着内容表现的变化,操作模式也随之改进,例如MD版铁血兵团,关卡里小BOSS大幅增加,很多时候需要人物固定斜向射击,便增加了一个切换按键,让玩家按下斜方向键时可以选择是否移动

In the following works, with the change of content performance, the operation mode has also been improved, such as MD version of the Iron Blood Corps, the level of small boss greatly increased, many times need to fix the character oblique shooting, then added a switch button, so that players can press the oblique key to choose whether to move or not

  总的来说,FC版魂斗罗无论操作体验还是关卡设计,都属于RunGun类型,强调在运动中消灭敌人,利用精妙的按键设计配合场景内容,实现了极为流畅的手感,在硬件条件并不发达的时代,可以说是非常成功的游戏设计典范。操作要和内容精密贴合,按键指令贵精不贵多,这就是魂斗罗给我们带来的成功启示

In general, the fc version of the soul, no matter the operation experience or level design, belong to the rungun type, emphasizing the elimination of the enemy in the movement, the use of exquisite key design to match the scene content, to achieve a very smooth feel, in the era of hardware conditions are not developed, can be said to be a very successful game design model. The operation and the content of the precise fit, key instructions are not expensive, this is the soul to bring us success enlightenment

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China Game WeightRank is the most comprehensive, professional, fair and objective multi-platform game review list launched by Sina, which includes all the mobile games, end games, host games, VR games, smart TV games and H5 games on the market.